Individual contacts with scientists from the then Soviet Union started in 1964. The scientific co-operation with CERN is based on various Agreements and Protocols with the first one signed in 1967. The 1996 Protocol on the participation in the LHC project defined the first Russian contributions to the LHC accelerator. The 2002 Extension to this Agreement brought an additional contribution to the LHC accelerator, now nearly fully committed. The latter, originally valid until the end of 2008, has been prolonged to be used for LHC purposes within the limit of the remaining funds.
The 2003 Protocol is now the official document governing Russian participation in the LHC programme. In 2006 Russia signed the Memoranda of Understanding for the Maintenance and Operation (MoUs for M&O) for the four LHC experiments, and the Russian Institutes are active in the preparation of the LHC physics programmes. Russia is a special Observer State, with the right to attend restricted Council sessions for discussions of LHC matters.
Russia participates in the WLCG as a federation of several centres at the Tier-2 level (RuTier-2), supporting all four LHC experiments.
Russia is participating in the Linac4 project through three R&D projects, fully financed by the International Science & Technology Center (ISTC). Russian institutes are also contributing to the CLIC/CTF3 R&D programme and to many other smaller experiments such as LHCf, AEGIS, ASACUSA, CAST, CLOUD, COMPASS, DIRAC, NA61, NA62, NA63, nTOF and OPERA.