In addition to Membership, CERN possesses various other legal instruments for governing its relations with States. These include the status of Associate Member, which comprise regular Associate Membership as well as Associate Membership as the pre-stage to full Membership. It is understood that subject to compliance with the applicable criteria and procedures, States that fall within the former category may transit to the latter status.
Serbia is an Associate Member in the pre-stage to Membership of CERN since 15 March 2012.
Turkey is an Associate Member since 6 May 2015.
Pakistan is an Associate Member since 31 July 2015.