For some time, physicists from Montenegro have participated as individuals in the CERN experimental programme, e.g. in heavy-ion physics via NA49 and ALICE, and a small team from the University of Montenegro in Podgorica has participated in the AD-4 (ACE) experiment on the biological effects of antiproton annihilation.
CERN signed an agreement with the University of Montenegro in Titograd (now Podgorica) in 1990, when Montenegro was still part of Yugoslavia. Following the independence of Montenegro, this was updated in 2007 to an International Cooperation Agreement (ICA) between the government and CERN in order to strengthen scientific and technical cooperation in high-energy physics.
A visit to CERN by the Minister of Science of Montenegro in December 2014 marked the start of a closer collaboration with the Organization, including through participation in CERN’s educational activities. During a visit by the country’s Prime Minister to CERN in July 2017, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed for Montenegro to become a member of the CMS collaboration.